DA3 NM
     
 
     
 

Illusion Within

DA3 NM exhibit at the South Broadway Cultural Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico July 1- August 30th, 2005

Can we really trust what our eyes see? Was Plato right saying we are living in a world of shadow? Many question I’d rather answer in this simple, visualistic way - And if it provides ground for further intellectual inquiry, I am glad my work entertains your philosophical, scientific and esthetic curiosity as well...
Jean Constant
July 2005

The chart below is a source reference to the individuals who inspired this body of work.  It is here to honor all who have and continue to dedicate time and energy to the exploration of our physical environment for everyone’s benefit.

Click the links for more information on DA3 NM and Jean Constant's Optical Illusions.

1.      Wheel from above

Aitken
In homage to Robert Grant Aitken astronomer, director of the Lick observatory, president of the University of California. Minor planet (3070) Aitken is named in his honor as well as a Moon crater 2 on the far side.
From another Aitken: Concentrating on the wheel center for a few minutes will make the wheel spin.

2.      The snake illusion

Somers and Adelson.
The diamonds are the same shade of gray and they are seen against light or dark backgrounds. Sets of half-ellipses have been added along the horizontal contours. The X-junctions aligned with the contour are consistent with transparency, and they establish atmospheric boundaries between strips.

3.      Orbison’s umbrella

Orbison
When we add oblique lines to a circle, the circle crooks and looks an ellipse, maybe...
You may understand the tendency, comparing appearances of the little circle and large circle...
The small circle is perfectly round, but seems bent because of the lines in the background.

4.      Liquid crystals

Edward H. Adelson
Optical illusion using X-junctions to make atmospheres perceptible as such. The centers of the two diamond shaped regions are physically the same shade of light gray.

5.      Ůcriss-crossÓ

Edward H. Adelson
One can intentionally combine statistical and configural cues to produce large contrast illusions. In the Ůcriss-crossÓ illusion, the small tilted rectangles in the middle are all the same shade of gray. The multiple psi-junctions along the vertical edges establish strong atmospheric boundaries.

6.      Ponzo scheme

Ponzo
First noticed by Mario Ponzo in 1913, size perception depends on the eye's interpretation of depth clues. The upper horizontal line segment appears to be longer.

7.      The magic vine

Wertheimer-Koffka
Compare the two halves of the annulus. The left half looks subtly darker than the right one. In the presence of the bar, the brightness difference without luminance difference is a standard case of simultaneous contrast. This is probably due to retinal mechanisms.
You may need to change your observation distance to see a sizable effect.

8.      The moon is within reach

Hermann
Dark patches appear in the street crossings, except for the ones which you are directly looking at.
If you look around in the neighboring figure you will notice the appearance and disappearance of black dots at the crossings.
(Invoked to explain Florida’s election problems in 2001:  “Count the black dots, recount to confirm…”)

9.      Tetrastills

Sanders
The parallelogram illusion: Diagonals a and b are of equal length.
The researchers hypothesized that people living in highly carpentered environments would learn to interpret oblique and acute angles as displaced right angles and to perceive two-dimensional drawings in terms of depth.

10.   Oryan

Blommer
The center square at the top left looks smaller than the center square at the bottom left. Variation on the Delbeuf /Tichener observation: Identical objects are perceived as unequal in size because they are surrounded by objects of a different size.

11.   Glass window

Hering
Discovered in the 19th century by German physiologist Ewald Hering.
In this illusion, two straight lines appear curved or bowed in the context of intersecting lines with orientations that change progressively. Hiding the oblique lines from the view will reveal the fact that the horizontal bars are equally straight.

12.   Aladdin’s lamp

Wundt
 
Considered the founder of experimental psychology, Wilhelm Wundt introduced cognitive principles to the psychology community in the late 1880s. The overestimation of the sub tense of acute angles and the underestimation of obtuse ones was reported first by Wundt and has been confirmed repeatedly by modern studies

13.   Backgammon

Delbeuf/Tichener
The center circle at the bottom right looks smaller than the center circle at the top left. Variation on the Delbeuf/Tichener observation: Identical objects are perceived as unequal in size because they are surrounded by objects of a different size.

14.   Independent mind

Wertheimer-Koffka
Variation on the Wertheimer-Koffka  illusion Compare the two halves of the annulus. The left half looks subtly darker than the right one. In the presence of the bar, the brightness difference without luminance difference is a standard case of simultaneous contrast.

15.   Blue Oreos

Ehrenfels

A combination of Hering’s and Zöllner’s illusions. The background of concentric circles makes the squares appear distorted. Again, judge the straightness of the lines, by hiding the background

16.   Purple flows

Edward H. Adelson

Optical illusion using X-junctions to make atmospheres perceptible as such. The centers of the two diamond shaped regions are physically the same shade of light gray.

17.   Cloudy skies

Aitken

In homage to Robert Grant Aitken astronomer, director of the Lick observatory, president of the University of California. Minor planet (3070) Aitken is named in his honor as well as a Moon crater 2 on the far side.

From another Aitken: Concentrating on the wheel center for a few minutes will make the wheel spin.

 
     
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